Animation and Motion Graphics: ART 4075-J01

Class Meets: Monday/Wednesday 1PM-3:15PM
Location: Media Art Research Studio (MARS)
Professor: Sean Clute, sean@seanclute.net
Class URL: www.seanclute.net/animation
Office Hours: Monday 10AM-11AM, Tuesday 11:30AM-12:30PM or by appointment

Course Description:
This course covers artistic and theoretical principles in animation and motion graphics. Students will be taught basic techniques including use of Keyframes, Effects, Movable Type and Character Animation. The course covers both traditional styles of animation (Frame by Frame, rotoscope, tweens), basic 2D Character rigging, and experimental techniques. Students will be exposed to work created by innovators of animation to gain insight on applying theory and technique. The class will also provide an environment where students can share their work, ideas and critique each others’ progress.

Goals:
Develop language and techniques for creating and critiquing animations
Learn a variety of traditional and contemporary principles of animating
Introduce the history, criticism, and theory surrounding animation
Learn how to use computers and software for creative purposes
Discover more about ourselves and methods of self-expression through art

Software introduced:
After Effects CC
Flash CC
Adobe Media Encoder CC
Quicktime X

Grading Summary:
Assignment #1 (Character I) | 5%: You will create character rig
Assignment #2 (Character II) | 5%: You will animate a dancing character
Assignment #3 (Character III) | 5%: You will create character dialogue and replacement animation
Assignment #4 (Character IV) | 5%: You will create a scene with two characters
Assignment #5 (Text and Shape) | 5%: You will create a animation using text and shape
Assignment #6 (Rotoscope) | 5% You will create short live-action piece

Final Project: | 40% You will create a final project to be shown at the end of the semester. This project may be informed from a previous assignment or a new idea but should follow your storyboard or concept.

Participation | 30%:
I take attendance. For each class (after three absences) I drop your final grade by one letter (ex. A to B)
Critiques are super important! If you miss a critique I drop your final grade by a minus (ex A to A-)

Other miscellaneous stuff:
I give extra credit for attending artist lectures and screenings

Connecting to the Class Server
We have a class server (an external storage device) in which all assignments must be uploaded.
To access the server:
Finder/Go/Connect to Server/Connect
or
press [command k] when in the finder

If the server address is blank. Then type in smb://155.42.34.15/art and press connect.

Checking out Equipment or Cameras:
To check out cameras go to IT in the basement floor of Senators North Hall between 8AM-4:30PM

Help:
You can always email me at sean@seanclute.net
You can come to my office hours (see above)
For technical help you can file a report with IT here: https://servicedesk.vsc.edu/

MARS Hours:
MARS is open to you when no class is present. You must get your ID activated at security to use.

Schedule Details:

Class 1 (Aug 22) – Orientation | Computer Basics | Lecture: Animation I

Introduction to the class:
Who are we?
Survey
Class Website

Computer Basics
Tour OSX
How do I organize folders and files using “_” and “1”, “2”, “3”, etc.?
Why will I have to save all assignments as LastnameFirstname?
Key Commands:
n = make new things
s = save
c = copy
x = cut
v = paste
z = undo

Lecture: Animation Basics
Traditional animation has a background in understanding physics

Physics and Motion
Momentum and Mass (two different sized balls, which has a greater mass)
Friction and drag (ice vs sand vs air)
Center of mass (frisbee vs golf club)

this translates to:

Principles of Animation
Slow in and slow out
Overlap and followthrough (ball on string)
Squash and stretch

Animation Software
Understanding axis and movement (x, y, z)
Frame rates (24FPS)
Key frames
Animation curves (linear, bezier)
Motion Paths
Hierarchies (like an arm)
Anchor or pivot points (scale, rotation)

Lecture Animation I:
Lecture on Animation I

Assignment Interesting (DUE Aug 24): You will share an excerpt from an animation you like or at least find interesting.
Requirements:

* Pick an excerpt of an animation you find interesting
* Prepare to explain why you picked this excerpt
* The excerpt must be no longer then one minute
* Save the excerpt as a .mov or .m4v file
* Place file on ART/_CluteAnimation/Assignments/Interesting

Homework:
Make sure you can log into the computers and ART server
Finish Assignment Interesting because it is due next class!

Class 2 (Aug 24) – DUE: Assignment Intro | Lecture: Animation II

Assignment Interesting DUE:
We will view your favorite excerpts

Lecture Animation II:
Lecture on Animation II

Assignment #1 (DUE Sep 5):You will design and create an original moving character rig.
Requirements:
* Draw character sketches on paper or computer
* Scan or redraw best sketch into Photoshop or Illustrator

* The character’s joints must be on separate layers

* The character’s joints should overlap with semi-circles

* All layers must be descriptively labeled
* Create a character rig project using After Effects
* Make the composition a duration of 2 seconds @ 24 FPS (48 frames)

* Import your character layers into AF as a Composition Retaining Layer Styles

* Adjust the anchor points of each joint using the Pan Behind Tool
* Create character parts in child/parent hierarchies

* Create one simple action (hammering, jumping, waving, etc.)
* Make action loop-able
* Save the project file as LastnameFirstname.aep
* Export a .mov as LastnameFirstname.mov
* Place all assets in in a folder LastnameFirstname
* Place files on ART/_CluteAnimation/Assignments/CharacterI

Homework:
Start sketching character designs

Class 3 (Aug 29) – Demo: Intro/Character | Lab: Character I

Demo: Intro to After Effects & Character Animation:
Tutorials AF Intro
After Effects Interface
Importing
Importing from Photoshop
Importing from Illustrator
Understanding Alpha Channels
Tutorials AF Character Animation
Designing Characters
Joints
Replacement Parts

Lab:
Work on character sketch in Photoshop or Illustrator
Homework:

Class 4 (Aug 31) – Demo: Intro/Character | Lab: Character I

Demo: Intro to After Effects & Character Animation:
Tutorials AF Intro
AF Compositions
Layers (type, solid, shape)
Previewing
Basic Animation
Rendering
Tutorials AF Character Animation
Rigging in AF

Lab:
Bring sketches into AF, create composition, animate

Homework:
Finish assignment #2 because it is due next class!

Class 5 (Sep 5) – DUE: Assignment #1 | Demo: Intro/Character | Lab: Character II

DUE Assignment #1

Assignment #2 (DUE Sep 12): You will design and create an original dancing character to audio of your choice.
Requirements:

* Draw character sketches on paper or computer
* Scan or redraw best sketch in Photoshop or Illustrator

* All layers must be descriptively labeled
* Create a character rig project using After Effects
* Make the composition 24 FPS

* Import your character layers into AF as a Composition Retaining Layer Styles

* Add a short audio layer with a beat

* Add puppet pins to character
* Record puppet (command click on pins) to dance to music
* Make action loop-able
* Save the project file as LastnameFirstname.aep
* Export a .mov as LastnameFirstname.mov
* Place all assets in in a folder LastnameFirstname
* Place files on ART/_CluteAnimation/Assignments/CharacterII

Demo: Intro to After Effects & Character Animation
Tutorials AF Intro
Navigating
Understanding Keyframes
Anchor Point
Tutorials AF Character Animation
Puppet Pin Tool, show mesh, add pins
Record Movements (command)

Lab:
Design characters in Photoshop or Illustrator

Homework:
Design characters and find audio sample

Class 6 (Sep 7) – Demo: Intro/Character | Lab: Character II

Demo: Intro to After Effects & Character Animation
Tutorials AF Intro
Understanding Keyframes
Tutorials AF Character Animation
Smooth or convert to bezier (command click on keyframes)
Puppet Overlap Tool (extent, front)
Puppet Starch Tool (rigid)

Lab:
Work on puppet tool and animated movement

Homework:
Finish assignment #2 because it is due next class

Class 7 (Sep 12) -DUE: Assignment #2 | Demo: Intro/Character | Lab: Character III

DUE Assignment #2

Assignment #3 (DUE Sep 19): You will design and create an original talking character using replacement animation.
Requirements:

* Draw character sketches on paper or computer
* Scan or redraw best sketch in Photoshop or Illustrator

* The character’s joints must be on separate layers

* The character’s joints should overlap with semi-circles
* Create replacement animation (ie, eyes, eyebrows, mouths, props)

* All layers must be descriptively labeled
* Create a character project using After Effects
* Make the composition 24 FPS

* Import your character layers into AF as a Composition Retaining Layer Styles
* Import audio dialogue
* Adjust the anchor points of each joint using the Pan Behind Tool

* Create parent/child hierarchies
* Sync mouth to dialogue layer using replacement animation
* Save the project file as LastnameFirstname.aep
* Export a .mov as LastnameFirstname.mov
* Place all assets in in a folder LastnameFirstname
* Place files on ART/_CluteAnimation/Assignments/CharacterIII

Demo: Intro to After Effects & Character Animation
Tutorials AF Intro
Understanding Keyframes
Anchor Points
Tutorials AF Character Animation
Replacement Parts
Replacement Animation
Replacement Mouths

Lab:
Create character and replacement mouths

Homework:
Create character, replacement parts, and dialogue recording

Class 8 (Sep 14) – Demo: Intro/Character Lab: Character III

Demo: Intro to After Effects & Character Animation
Tutorials AF Intro
Expressions
Tutorials AF Character Animation
Expressions
Time Remapping for Lip Sync

Lab:
Create time remap of replacement parts

Homework:
Finish assignment #3 because it is due next class!

Class 9 (Sep 19) – DUE: Assignment #3 | Demo: Intro/Character | Lab: Character IV

DUE Assignment #3

Assignment IV (DUE Sep 28): You will design and create an original animated scene with two characters and a background.
Requirements:

* Draw character sketches on paper or computer
* Scan or redraw best sketches in Photoshop or Illustrator

* The characters’ joints must be on separate layers

* The characters’ joints should overlap with semi-circles

* All layers must be descriptively labeled
* Create a project using After Effects
* Make the composition 24 FPS with a resolution of 1920 x 1080

* Import your character layers into AF as a Composition Retaining Layer Styles

* Adjust the anchor points of each joint using the Pan Behind Tool
* Create child/parent hierarchies

* Add audio track
* Add background
* Both characters must have movement
* Other objects can be present in scene
* Save the project file as LastnameFirstname.aep
* Export a .mov as LastnameFirstname.mov
* Place all assets in in a folder LastnameFirstname
* Place files on ART/_CluteAnimation/Assignments/CharacterIV

Demo: Intro to After Effects & Character Animation
Tutorials AF Intro
Review
Tutorials AF Character Animation
Review

Lab:
Design a scene for two characters including a background

Homework:
Design characters and scene

Class 10 (Sep 21) – Lab: Character IV

Lab:
Design characters and scene. Rig in AF.

Homework:
Design characters and scene. Rig in AF.

Class 11 (Sep 26) – Lab: Character IV

Lab:
Rig in AF. Animate characters.

Homework:
Finish assignment IV because it is due next class!

Class 12 (Sep 28) – DUE: Assignment #4 | Recap

DUE Assignment #4

Recap:
Review what we have learned. Rest of time is to catch up on old assignments before next phase.

Class 13 (Oct 10) -Demo: Shape | Lab: Text/Shape

Demo: Solids and Shapes
Solids
Layers are either referenced or generated
Shape and Text layers are generated
Layer/New/Solid
Layer/Solid Settings to change size, color
Shapes
Create custom shapes with Shape Tool or Pen Tool
Do not have any layer selected!
Shapes fill, stroke, stroke weight
Constrain Shape (shift)
Shaper Layer Properties
Animating Shapes
ie: SolidsShapesType/ShapeAnimate
Layer/Shape Layer or use Shape Tool
Animate using Transform of Shape or Transform of Layer

Assignment #5 (DUE Oct 17): You will create an animation only using shapes and text.
Requirements:

* You must make an animation only using shapes and text

* The text must be be from anything you have read or heard in past week

* The shapes and text may relate to each other
* Export the file as a .mov
* Label each file as LastnameFirstname.mov
* Place file on ART/_CluteAnimation/Assignments/ShapeText

Homework:
Work on Text/Shape Assignment

Class 14 (Oct 12) -Demo: Text | Lab: Text/Shape

Demo: Text
Type Animator
Type Tool creates a Type Layer
Character Panel: change color, font, stylize, kerning, etc.
Animate by adding parameters; use Property/Source Text/Animate

Type on a Path
Easier to animate the position with a path
Create a path using Pen Tool on Text Layer
Open Text/PathOptions/Path change to mask

Homework:
Work on Text/Shape Assignment because it is due next class

Class 15 (Oct 17) -DUE: Assignment #5 | Demo: Rotoscope

DUE Assignment #5

Screening:
View Koko the Clown
Past student works

Assignment #6 (DUE Oct 31): You will create a short animation using the rotoscope technique.
Requirements:

* You must record your own video footage

* The video footage should be a short action

* You must trace over the video action frame by frame

* You must add a different background to the animation

* The background must be something you create/draw/sample
* Export as a .mov
* Label each file as LastnameFirstname.mov
* Place file on ART/_CluteAnimation/Assignments/Rotoscope

Demo: Rotoscope
What is Rotoscoping

Paint
Paint workspace
Paint on a layer (composition is separate viewer)
Duration (set to single frame)
After painting frames create a new solid
Copy Effects and add to solid layer (thus eliminating background)

Homework:
Work on Assignment #6

Class 16 (Oct 19) – Demo: Rotoscope | Lab: Rotoscope

Demo: Roto brush
Select elements and isolate from background
Use brush in layer at full quality/highest resolution
Change brush size (command click), subtract selection (option click)
Freeze and Unfreeze roto brush data

Homework:
Work on Rotoscope project

Class 17 (Oct 24) – Demo: Rotoscope | Lab: Rotoscope

Demo: Refine Brush
Smooth root brush selections
Use on edges of selection
Effects Control Panel to change smooth, feather, etc.

Homework:
Work on Rotoscope assignment

Class 18 (Oct 26) – Viewing: A Scanner Darkly

Viewing:
In Sterns we shall see A Scanner Darkly
Homework:
Work on Rotoscope assignment as it is due next class

Class 19 (Oct 31) -DUE: Assignment #6 | Lab: Final

DUE Assignment # 6

Final Project (Due Nov 7, Dec 7): You will create a final animation and/or motion graphic project for this class. The project will mostly be up to you but must be approved by me first.
Requirements:
PART I (DUE Nov 7)
* One page statement including what, why and how the final project will look

* One page timeline that details what you will do in the remaining classes

* A storyboard, script, and/or images for the project
* A 30 second clip (that you create) that represents the style you are intending
* All materials must be uploaded to the art server in a single folder
* You may work in groups

* All projects must get the “green light” from me to start
* Place file on ART/_CluteAnimation/Assignments/FinalProposal
PART II
 (Due Dec 7)
* The final project must be approved by me first
* You may work in groups

* You must hand in a file named “LastnameFirstname.”
* Place the file on ART/_CluteAnimation/Assignments/FinalFinal

Class 20 (Nov 2) -Lab: Final

Lab:
Work on Part I of final as it is due next class!

Class 22 (Nov 7) -DUE: Final Part I

DUE: Final Part I
We will meet individually to go over all aspects of the final part I

Lab:
Final

Class 22 (Nov 9) – Lab: Final

Lab:
Final

Class 23 (Nov 14) -Lab: Final

Lab:
Final

Class 24 (Nov 16) -Lab: Final

Lab:
Final

Class 25 (Nov 28) -Lab: Final

Lab:
Final

Class 26 (Nov 30) -Lab: Final

Lab:
Final

Class 27 (Dec 5) -Lab: Final

Lab:
Final; it is due on server by beginning of next class!

Class 28 (Dec 7) – FINAL PROJECT DUE!

FINAL PROJECT DUE:
We will screen the final project in Sterns Cinema!
Invite your friends!

Final Meeting (TBA)

Final Meetings:
Final individual meetings will occur TBA in VAC 004

Tutorials:


After Effects Intro:
After Effects Interface
File Menu
Tools (Selection Tool, Hand, Zoom, etc.)
Project Panel (double click to import, folders, files)
Timeline (layers, keyframes)
Composition Viewer (where to view and process the comp)
Panels (Info, Preview, Effects and Presets)
Move and Resize Panels (~)
Workspaces (Reset Standard)
Timeline (Playhead, Zoom, Layers)

Importing
AF is just a container, it references files but does not embed them
AF works with many file types (.psd, .jpg, .ai, .mov, .aif, etc.)
File/Import
Double Click on Library
Importing as Footage, Composition, Composition-Retain Layer Styles

Importing Photoshop
Import/File/ImportAs/Composition-Retain Layer Styles
Layer Options/Editable Layer Styles
AF creates 1)composition 2) folder with layers
Double click comp icon and AF automatically places layers

Importing Illustrator
Create layers for each object you want to animate
Chose import as composition
In timeline turn on Continuous Rasterize
You can convert Illustrator shapes to AF shapes Layer/Create Shapes from Vector Layer

Understanding Alpha Channels
Alpha is the transparency
In comp window you can see which channel you are looking at
To change Alpha you do so in render cue output module

Compositions
Compositions are heart of After Effects
Comps can import many types of files, combine them, effect them, output them
Comps are made up of layers
Comps are saved inside projects (you can have projects with many compositions)
To make Comps double click on icon in Project Panel
To make Comps goto Composition/New Composition
Naming Compositions (double click on name)
Composition Setup you can setup resolution
Composition Setup you can setup Pixel Aspect Ratio (square pixels)
Composition Setup you can set Duration
To add a new source to a comp you can import to Project Panel then drag into Timeline

Layers
Imported vs Synthetic layers
Shape layers, Text layers, Comp layer, Solid layer, Adjustment Layer
Layers are like Photoshop layers because of stacking order
Eyeball shows/hides the layer
Dot solos the layer
Disclosure triangle reveals parameters
Trim layers with mouse on left/right of layer line
Move layers with mouse

Type Layers
After Effects is the go to application for text and animation
Composition window / title and action safe button
Click type tool have auto-open panels
Character panel (color, font, leading)

Solid Layers
Layer/ New/ Solid
Add a mask to the layer solid by using shape tools
You can tell what is selected by looking at anchor points
Don’t forget shift drag to keep proportions
Add the mask path to create animation

Shape Layers
Shape layers and shape masks are similar
Notice fill and stroke colors and stroke width
Click and drag the shape
Hold shift to constrain shape
Transform the position in the timeline

Switches and Blend Modes
You can toggle modes on and off
Modes are like adjustment layers in Photoshop

Custom Shapes
To add shapes you can change the path outline by double clicking
Pen tool/ set fill, stroke, deselect rotobezier function
Click vs. click and drag. connect points, not drawing

Mask Feather
Mask Feather tool is under the pen tool
Make a box around selection, invert the mask selection
With Mask Feather tool click and drag the edge
Shift plus drag only feathers one edge

Navigating Viewer
Zoom Tool in comp tab (z)
Zoom In (command +)
Zoom Out (opt click)
Zoom Out (command -)
Hand Tool (spacebar)
Magnification (Fit up to 100%)

Previewing
Preview (spacebar)
Notice it might say “Not Real time” in the Info Panel
Notice the green render lines
Ram Preview in Preview panel (RAM preview, or 0 on numeric keyboard)
You can adjust the start and end points in the timeline
Work Area Start (b)
Work Area End (n)
Work Area reset (double click on area)

Basic Animation
Keyframes are the essence of animation
Keyframes record the current state of a parameter at a particular time
You need at least two keyframes to make an animation
Select layer and open the disclosure triangle
Press stopwatch for parameter to be animated
Keyframe is a yellow diamond
Move object in layer to a different time to see creation of new keyframe
Notice the animation path
Press spacebar or 0 to preview

Understanding Keyframes
Show all keyframes selecting layer (u)
Keyframes record a setting of a parameter at a specific time
Basic keyframe parameters include Anchor Point, Position, Scale, Rotation, Opacity
Position, or the x and y axis (p)
Scale (s)
Rotate (r)
Opacity, or alpha (t)
Select Keyframes click or click marque
Copy Keyframes (command c)
Paste Keyframes (command v)
Keyframes paste where the playhead is located
Paths show the speed of the motion

Anchor Point
Anchor determines where the transforms work from
You can edit the anchor in the layer panel or pan behind tool

Rendering
Rendering is creating animation for output
Composition/Add to render que
Render Queue window
Modify Output Module (Change Animation from Quality to medium)
Show how to select audio output


After Effects Keyframes:
Interpolating Keyframes
Interpolation is the process of filling in data between two keyframes (also called tweening)
Temporal and Spatial interpolation
Temporal interpolation affects how a property changes over time (ex. Opacity)
Spatial interpolation affects the shape of a path (ex. Position)
Linear vs. Bezier
Spacing on motion path indicates the speed between keyframes
You can change interpolation Right Click Keyframe/KeyframeInterpolation
You can change interpolation Right Click Keyframe/KeyframeAssistant
You can change interpolation with Graphic Editor

Auto Bezier
Bezier is good for smoothing transitions between keyframes
Auto Bezier keyframe (command click on keyframe notice it turns to a circle)
Right Click on Keyframe/KeyframeInterpolation/AutoBezier
You can change the curve by dragging the handles
Pen Tool Convert Vertex Tool breaks up the handles

Easy Ease
Easy Ease is good for start or end keyframes
Right click on keyframe to add easy ease
If first keyframe it causes a gradual start
If last keyframe it causes a gradual slow down
Easy ease does not work well in the middle of an animation

Hold Keyframes
Hold a value until the next keyframe
This creates jumpy animation
Right Click Keyframe/Toggle Hold Keyframes
Animation/Toggle Hold Keyframe
Keyframe changes shape

Graph Editor Interace
Graph Editor shows the animated properties
Access graph editor in the Timeline
You can change the different views of the Graphic Editor by selecting parameter or view all
You can adjust the keyframes in the graph editor
You can adjust the curve the of the keyframe paths

Graph Editor Editing
Show animated properties
Auto select graph type
To add a keyframe with Selection Tool (command click)
Select keyframe and drag to change the range
Hold shift key to constrain value
To move a group of keyframes marque laso, get a bounding box, move bounding box

Graph Editor Interpolation
Select frame/Easy Easy button
You can move the handle on a curve
Select keyframe/Auto Bezier button
Or use Convert Vertex Tool (opt click)
You can move the handle on a curve

Graph Editor Separate Dimensions
You can separate x and y which is important for bounces
Show position parameter
Create keyframes
You cannot set x without setting y unless you click separate dimensions button
Do all of editing in the Graph Editor otherwise you edit both x, y
Keep x constant and change y
Break handles by option clicking on the bezier curve handle

Motion Sketch
Motion Sketch (set workspace to Animation)
Motion Sketch allows you to use a mouse to create a path
Motion Sketch panel click Start Capture

Smoother
Smoother (set workspace to Animation)
Select position on a layer you want to edit
Set Tolerance to 1 then 10
Click apply

Auto Orientation
After image position is changing on a path
Layer/Transform/Auto Orient
Select Orient Along Path
Show rotate parameter in layer change the rotation
Smooth transitions on keyframe handles

Motion Blur
To make motion more smooth use blur
On layer in timeline turn Enable Motion Blur
You also need to turn on the Motion Blur for all layers in timeline


After Effects Effects:
Understanding Effects
Effects are the same as filters in Photoshop
Effects are applied to layers
To add an effect select layer/effects/chose effect
Or to add an effect search the Preset Panel
Apply effect by dragging into the Comp Window or into the Layer
Effects Control Panel allows to adjust parameters and keyframes
To delete an effect select layer, open, delete effect

Using Multiple Effects
You can use multiple effects on one layer
Effect/BlurAndSharpen/FastBlur
Effect/ColorCorrection/CCToner
Effect/Stylize/Glow
Order of the effects do effect the layer

Background Effects
You can generate a background such as a gradient, animation, or preset
To make a new background add Layer/New Solid
Add a Effect/Generate/CellPattern
Click stopwatch for Evolution parameter
Change the Cell Pattern parameter
To add a background with presets Animation/Browse Presets/Backgrounds/
Show how presets use a combination of effects

Animated Strokes
To draw a line on a path or stroke is common
Create a Layer/New/Solid
Use Pen tool to click and draw path
Add Effect/Generate/Stroke
Change different parameters
To animate click stopwatch for Change End parameter

Character Animation:
Designing Characters
Sketch design on paper then scan
Redesign your favorite rough sketches
Create a turnaround (front, side, 3/4 view)
Attention to proportion
Bring sketch into Photoshop or Illustrator and trace
Break the character into layers

Joints
The character needs to be broken into different parts or layers
Joints overlap with semi-circles (blend mode to Multiply)
Change the anchor point to see rotation point
Accessories can hide joints

Replacement Parts
Create replacement mouths, blinking, hands, etc.

Rigging In After Effects
In AF import as Composition Retain Layer Styles
Creates a composition with all layers
Change the rotation points with Pan Behind Tool (y)
Test with Rotation Tool (r)
ie, FranzFerdinandRigParent
Create layer hierarchies
Link the joints with the pick whip (start with end joints and move to body)
Use the parents and child relationships
The legs require different setup in hierarchy to keep the feet on the ground
Reverse hierarchy (Foot Master, Shin and Thigh are children)
Use a Null Object to connect the torso and feet thus able to move the entire character

Puppet Tool
Puppet Pin Tool, show mesh, add pins
Record Movements (command)
Smooth or convert to bezier (command click on keyframes)
Puppet Overlap Tool (extent, front)
Puppet Starch Tool (rigid)

Replacement Animation
Replacement animation is good for hands, feet, eyes, mouths, etc.
Select layers and create a Pre Comp
Align all replacement layers then trim to Region Of Interest (in comp window)
Composition/Crop Comp to Region of Interest
Set comp duration to total replacements (i.e., 3 mouths = 3 frames)
Sequence the replacements using keyframe assistant
Bring Pre Comp into main Comp
Apply Layer/TimeRemapping to the pre comp
Scrub the Time Remapping to find the replacement
Animate keyframes for the replacements
Change keyframes to Toggle Hold

Replacement Mouths
Create Pre Comp with all mouths
Align all the mouths so the the top of the mouth overlaps
Crop the region of interest
Create the Comp duration to the number of frames
Sequence the layers
In main Comp use Time Remapping

Expressions
Use Javascript to program After Effects
Select Property/Animation/Add Expression
Pick whip to link properties
Expression Language Menu (click triangle)
1:1 ratio or add a mathematical term
Opposite Expression value (* -1)
Loop expression (property loop cycle)

Expressions for Lip Sync
ie, CharacterRigs_Franz.aep/Replacement, CharacterRigs_Fred/Replacement
Keyframe Audio Amplitude (Animation/KeyframeAssistant/ConvertAudioforKeyframes)
Layer/Time/EnableTimeRemapping to mouth layer
Add expression to mouth layer
Use pick whip to Audio Amplitude layer
Add Ease Expression (a=(); ease(a, min, max, minA, maxA);)


Flash Intro:
What is Flash
Flash Environment
Media, Banner Ads, Web/Video, Interactivity but we are using for Animation

Bitmap vs. Vector
Flash is a vector based program

Flash File Types
.fla is like .psd in photoshop
.swf is like .jpg in photoshop

Flash Interface
File Menu
Stage and Pasteboard
Timeline (organizing layers, frames)
Panels
Tools (manipulate artwork on the stage)

Workspaces
Classic is good

Create New Document
We will use Actionscript 3.0
Show document Properties (size, fps)

Zoom and Hand
Zoom and Hand Tools
Zoom Tool (z, then click)
Zoom Tool to zoom out (option click)
Zoom Tool (marque zoom)
Zoom In and Out (cmd +, -)
Fit in Window (cmd 1)
Hand Tool (spacebar)

Object vs. Merge Drawing
Object is like Illustrator with shapes that can share the same layer and uneffect each other
Object vs. Merge Drawing
Merge the objects effect each other
Show .fla example
Modify = break apart
Modify = combine union

Line Tool
Stroke
Style (dashed, wavy, etc)

Oval Tool
Draw from Center (option click)
Constrain shape (shift click)
Start angle and End Angle
Inner Radius

Rect Tool
Rectangle Tool

Primitive Tools
Primitive Tools
A different type of object, not the object properties. It is not Object or Merge Drawing
The properties can be updated

Polystar Tool
Show options for drawing different types of shapes
Shift key = constrain

Deco Tool
Show drawing effects

Selecting Lines and Fills
Selecting Lines and Fills
Merge Drawing you can select anything
Object Drawing you cannot, however, double click to get merge drawing

Modifying Lines and Fills
Selection tool turns into an arrow to allow selecting anchor points

Pen Tool
You can create straight lines by clicking. Create shapes, do not draw.
Close paths by looking for a tiny circle near arrow.
Click drag allows you to create Bezier Curves, you will notice handles.
Sub-selection tool allows you to change individual anchor points.

Brush Tool
Brush draws fills instead of strokes
Brush Size
Brush Shape
Brush Color
Smooth (the higher the smooth value the more smooth the drawing)

Eraser Tool
Size
Shape

Grouping
Easier to move groups then pieces
command g or modify group
To edit a group just double click it

Eyedropper
Sample a pice of art on stage

Paint Bucket
Paint Bucket creates fills, try with a pen tool shape

Ink Bottle
Ink Bottle creates strokes, try with brush tool shape

Color Panel
Fill or Stroke color selection
Go over the options

Gradient
Apply gradient inside the color panel

Free Transform
Free Transform is used to scale, rotate, skew shapes
Handles allow you to move the shape
Opt moves from the middle
Shift constrains shape
Transformation Point

Align
Window Align to find panel
Great for creating backgrounds


Flash and Rotoscope:
Rotoscope Intro
A technique to trace over video footage
Frame by frame
Live-Action animated films
Create a matte for an element to be composited over another background
Max Fleischer invented it

Rotoscope
Start with a video (ex, Walk.mov)
Convert Video (Adobe Media Encoder to FLV)
Import video (File/Import/Embed FLV, uncheck audio)
Lock video track
Create a new Layer
Select keyframes
Create blank keyframes
Draw with brush to recreate movement

Straight Ahead Animation:
Straight Ahead Animation